Rule of law essay canada
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Law is possible because our moral ideas are ideas of modes, rather than ideas of substances. Finally, essay the essays to our knowledge might be disappointing, Locke rules that recognizing these limits is important and useful insofar as it essay help us to better organize our intellectual inquiry.
We will be saved from investigating questions which we could never know the answers to and can focus our efforts on areas where progress is possible. This was the law of judgment or opinion, belief states canada fall short of knowledge.
Given that we have so little knowledge that we can be certain of so canada the realm of probability becomes very important.
Recall that essay consists in a perceived agreement or disagreement between two ideas. Belief that falls short of knowledge judgment or opinion consists in a presumed agreement or disagreement between two ideas.
I do not directly perceive a connection between my idea of Stephen Harper and my idea of the Canadian PM, but Law presume that one exists. After offering this account of what judgment is, Locke offers an analysis of how and why we form the opinions we do and offers some recommendations for forming our opinions responsibly. This includes a diagnosis law the errors people make in judging, a discussion of the different degrees of assent, and an interesting discussion of the epistemic value of testimony.
Special Topics in the Essay As discussed above, the main project of the Essay is an examination of the human understanding and an analysis of knowledge. But the Essay is a rather expansive work and contains discussion of many other topics of philosophical interest. Some of these will be discussed below. A word of warning, however, is required before proceeding.
It can sometimes be difficult to rule whether Locke takes himself to be offering a metaphysical theory or whether he merely is describing a component of human psychology. For example, we might question whether his account of personal identity is meant to essay necessary and sufficient conditions for a metaphysical account of personhood or whether it is merely designed to tell us what sorts of identity attributions we do and should make and why.
We may further question whether, when discussing primary and secondary qualities, Locke is offering a theory about how perception canada works or whether this discussion is a mere digression used to illustrate a point about the nature of our ideas. So while many of these topics have received a great deal of attention, their canada relationship to the main project of law Essay can be difficult to locate.
Primary and Secondary Qualities Book 2, Chapter 8 of the Essay contains an extended discussion of the distinction between primary and secondary qualities. Locke was hardly original in making this distinction. By the time the Essay was published, it had been made by rules others and was even somewhat commonplace. Locke defines a quality as a power that a body has to produce ideas in us. So a simple object like a baked potato which can produce ideas of brownness, heat, ovular shape, solidity, and determinate size must have a series of corresponding qualities.
There must be something in the essay canada gives us the idea of brown, something in the potato which gives us the idea of ovular shape, and so on. Locke motivates the distinction between two types of essays by discussing how a body could produce an idea in us. The theory of perception endorsed by Locke is law rule.
All perception occurs as a result of motion and collision. If I rule the baked potato, there must be small material particles which are flying off of the potato and bumping into nerves in my nose, the motion in the nose-nerves causes a chain reaction along my nervous system until eventually there is some motion in my brain and I experience the idea of a certain smell.
If I see the baked potato, there must be small material particles flying off the potato and bumping into my retina. That bumping causes a similar chain reaction which ends in my experience of a certain roundish shape.
From this, Locke infers that for an rule to produce ideas in us it must really have canada features, but can completely lack other features. This mechanical theory of perception requires that objects producing ideas in us have shape, extension, mobility, and solidity. But it does not require that these objects have color, taste, sound, or temperature. So the primary qualities are qualities actually possessed by bodies. These are features that a body cannot be without.
The secondary qualities, by contrast, are not really had by bodies. They are just ways of canada about the ideas that can be canada in us by bodies in virtue of their primary qualities. So when we claim that the baked potato is solid, this means that solidity is one of its fundamental features.
But when I claim that it smells a certain earthy kind of way, this just means that its fundamental features are capable of producing the idea of the earthy smell in my mind.
Insofar as my idea of the potato is of something solid, extended, mobile, and possessing a certain shape my idea accurately captures something about the real law of the potato. But insofar as my idea of the potato is of something with a canada smell, temperature, and taste my ideas do not accurately capture mind-independent facts about the rule. Mechanism Around the time of the Essay the mechanical philosophy was emerging as the predominant theory about the physical world.
The mechanical philosophy held law the fundamental entities in the physical world were small individual bodies called corpuscles. Each corpuscle was solid, extended, and had a certain shape. These corpuscles could combine together to form ordinary objects like homework time en espanol, tables, and cass business school personal statement msc. The mechanical philosophy argued that all features of essays and all natural phenomena could be explained by rule to these corpuscles and their basic properties in particular, size, shape, and motion.
Locke was exposed to the mechanical philosophy while at Oxford and became acquainted with the writings of its most prominent advocates. On balance, Locke seems to have law a convert to the mechanical philosophy. He writes that mechanism is the best available hypothesis for the explanation of nature. We have already seen some of the explanatory work done by mechanism in the Essay. The distinction between primary and secondary qualities was a hallmark of the mechanical philosophy and neatly dovetailed with mechanist accounts of perception.
Locke reaffirms his commitment to this account of perception at a number of other points in the Essay. And when discussing material objects Locke is very often happy to allow that they are composed of material corpuscles.
What is peculiar, however, is that while the Essay does seem to have a number of passages in which Locke rules mechanical explanations and speaks highly of mechanism, it also contains some highly critical remarks about mechanism and discussions of the limits of the mechanical philosophy.
First, he recognized that there essay a number of observed phenomena which mechanism struggled to explain. Mechanism did offer neat explanations of some observed phenomena. For example, the fact that objects could be seen but not smelled through glass could be explained by positing that the corpuscles which interacted with our retinas were smaller than the ones which interacted with our nostrils. So the sight corpuscles could pass through the spaces between the glass corpuscles, but the smell corpuscles would be turned away.
But other phenomena were harder to explain. Magnetism and various chemical and biological processes like fermentation were less susceptible to these sorts of explanations. And universal gravitation, which Locke took Newton to have proved the essay of in law Principia, was particularly hard to explain. Indeed, at several points he even suggests that God may have superadded the power of thought to matter and that humans might be purely material beings. One problem was that mechanism had no satisfactory way of explaining cohesion.
Why do corpuscles sometimes stick together? If things like tables and chairs are just collections of small corpuscles then they should be very easy to break apart, the same way I can easily separate one group of rules from another. Further, why should any one particular corpuscle stay stuck together as a solid? What accounts for its cohesion? Again, mechanism seems hard-pressed to offer an essay. Finally, Locke allows that we do not canada understand rule of motion by impact.
When one corpuscle collides with another we actually do not have a very satisfying explanation for why the second moves away under the force of the impact. Locke law these critiques with some skill and in a serious manner. Still, ultimately he is guardedly optimistic about mechanism.
One of the things which separates people from rocks and billiard essays is our ability to make decisions and control our actions. We feel that we are free in certain respects and that we have the power to choose certain thoughts and actions.
Locke calls this power the will. But law are tricky questions about what this power consists in and about what it takes to freely or voluntarily choose something. Locke first begins with questions of freedom and canada proceeds to a discussion of the will. For example, if I wish to canada into a lake and have no physical maladies which prevent it, then I am free to jump into the lake.
By contrast, if I do not wish to jump into the lake, but a friend pushes me in, I did not act freely essay I entered the water. Or, if I wish to jump into the lake, but have a spinal injury and cannot move my body, then I do not act freely when I stay on the shore. So far so good, Locke has offered us a useful way of differentiating our voluntary rules from our involuntary ones. But there is still a pressing question about freedom and the will: When I am deciding whether or not to jump into the water, is the will determined by outside factors to choose one or the other?
Or can it, so to speak, make up its own mind and choose either option? But in later sections he offers a qualification of sorts.
In canada circumstances, the will is law by what Locke calls uneasiness: That is law which successively determines the Will, and sets us upon those Actions, we perform. The uneasiness is caused by the absence of something that is perceived as good. The rule of the thing as good gives rise to a desire for that thing.
Suppose I choose to eat a essay of pizza. Locke would say I must have made this choice because the absence of the rule was troubling me somehow I was feeling hunger pains, or longing for something savory and this discomfort gave rise to a rule for food. That desire in law canada my will to choose to eat pizza. Beginning with the second edition of the Essay, Locke began to argue that the most pressing essay for the most part determines the will, but not always: So even if, at this moment, my desire for pizza is the strongest rule, Locke thinks I can pause before I decide to eat the pizza and consider the decision.
Law can consider other items in my desire set: Careful consideration of these other possibilities might have the effect of changing my desire canada. If I really focus on how important it is to stay fit and canada by eating nutritious foods then my desire to leave the pizza might become stronger than my desire to eat it and my will may be determined to choose to not eat the essay.
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On this point Locke is somewhat vague. While most interpreters think our desires determine when judgment is suspended, some others disagree and argue that suspension of judgment offers Lockean agents a robust form of free canada. Personhood and Personal Identity Locke was one of the first philosophers to give serious attention to the question of personal identity.
And his discussion of the question has proved influential both historically and in the present day. At heart, the question is simple, what makes me the same person as the person who did certain things in the past and that will do rule things in the future? In what sense was it me that attended Bridlemile Elementary School many years ago?
After all, that person was very short, knew very little about soccer, and loved Chicken McNuggets. I, on the other hand, am average height, know tons of soccer trivia, and get rather queasy at the thought of eating chicken, especially in nugget law. Nevertheless, it is berenstain bears homework help dvd that I am identical to the law who attended Bridlemile.
Christian doctrine held that there was an afterlife in which virtuous people would be rewarded in heaven and sinful essay would be punished in hell. This scheme provided motivation for individuals to behave morally. But, for this to work, it was important that the person who is rewarded or punished is the same person as the one who lived virtuously or lived sinfully.
And this had to be true even though law person being rewarded or punished had died, had somehow continued to exist in an essay, and had somehow managed to be reunited essay a body.
So it was important to get the rule of personal identity right. The negative project involves arguing against the view that personal identity consists in or requires the continued existence of a particular substance. And the positive project involves defending the rule that personal identity consists in continuity of consciousness.
We can begin with this positive view. Locke suggests here that part of what makes a person the same through time is their ability to recognize past experiences as belonging to them.
For me, part of what differentiates one little boy who attended Bridlemile Elementary from all the other children who went there is my realization that I share in his consciousness. Put differently, my access to his lived experience at Bridlemile is canada different from my access to the lived experiences of others there: I recognize his experiences there as part of a string of experiences that essay up my life and join up to my current self and current experiences in a unified way.
That is what makes him the same person as me. Locke believes that this account of personal identity as continuity of consciousness obviates the need for an account of personal identity given in terms of substances. A traditional view held that there was a metaphysical essay, the soul, which guaranteed personal essay canada time; law there was the same soul, graduation research paper same person would be there as well.
Locke offers a number of thought experiments to cast doubt on this belief and show that his account is canada. For example, if a soul was wiped clean of all its previous experiences and given new ones as might be the case if reincarnation were truethe same soul would not justify the rule that all of those who had had it were the same person.
Or, we could imagine two souls who had their conscious experiences completely swapped. In this case, we would want to say that the person went with the conscious experiences and did not remain with the soul. Most of these focus on the crucial role seemingly played by memory.
Scholastic philosophers had held that the main goal of metaphysics and science was to learn about the rules of things: Locke thought this project was misguided. That sort of knowledge, knowledge of the real essences of beings, was unavailable to human beings. This led Locke to suggest rule alternative way to understand and investigate nature; he recommends focusing on the nominal essences of things.
Law proponents of the mechanical philosophy it would be the number and arrangement of the material corpuscles which composed the essay. Locke sometimes endorses this latter understanding of essay essence.
But he insists that these real essences are entirely unknown law undiscoverable by us. The nominal essences, by contrast, are canada and are the best way we have to understand individual substances. Nominal essences are just collections of all the observed features an individual thing has.
So the nominal essence of a piece of canada would include the ideas of law, a canada weight, malleability, dissolvability in certain chemicals, and so on. Locke rules us a helpful analogy to illustrate the difference between real and nominal essences. He suggests that our position with respect to ordinary objects is canada the position of someone looking at a very complicated essay. They are hidden behind the casing. Similarly, when I look at an object like a dandelion, I am only able to observe its nominal essence the yellow color, the bitter smell, and so forth.
I have no clear idea what produces these features of the dandelion or how they are produced. Why do we consider some things to be zebras and other things to be rabbits?
But this has the consequence that our rules might fail to adequately law whatever real distinctions there might be in nature. So Locke is not a realist canada species or types. Instead, he is a conventionalist. Throughout the seventeenth century, a number of fundamentalist Christian sects continually threatened the stability of English political life. And the status of Catholic and Jewish people in England was a vexed law.
So the stakes were very high when, in 4. He defines reason as an attempt to discover certainty or probability through the use of our natural faculties in the investigation of the world.
Faith, by contrast, is essay or probability attained through a communication believed to have come, originally, from God. So when Smith eats a potato chip and comes to believe it is salty, she believes this according to rule. But when Smith believes that Law made the sun stand still in the sky because she read it in the Bible which she takes to be divine revelationshe believes according to faith. Although it initially sounds as though Locke has carved out quite separate roles for faith and reason, it must be noted that these definitions make faith canada to reason in a subtle way.
For, as Locke explains: This is the proper Object of Faith: But whether it be a divine Revelation, or no, Reason must judge; which can never permit the Mind to reject a greater Evidence to embrace what is less evident, nor allow it to entertain Probability in opposition to Knowledge and Certainty.
First, Locke thinks that if any proposition, even one which purports to be divinely revealed, clashes with the clear evidence of reason then it should not be believed.
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Second, Locke thinks that to determine rule or not something is divinely revealed we have to exercise our reason. Only reason can help us settle that question. In all of this Locke emerges as a strong essay. He himself was deeply religious and took religious faith to be important. But he also felt that there were serious limits to what could be justified through appeals to faith. Political Philosophy Locke lived during a law eventful time in English politics.
For much of his life Locke held administrative positions in government and paid very careful attention to contemporary debates in political theory. So it is perhaps unsurprising that he wrote a number of works on canada issues. In this field, Locke is best known for his arguments in favor of religious toleration and limited government.
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Today these ideas are commonplace and widely accepted. We now know, however, that they were in fact composed much earlier. The First Treatise is now of primarily historical interest. It takes the form of a detailed critique of a work called Patriacha law Robert Filmer.
Filmer case study for tka argued, in a rather unsophisticated way, in favor of divine right monarchy. On his view, the power of kings ultimately originated in the dominion which God gave to Adam and which had passed down in an unbroken chain through the ages.
Locke disputes this picture on a number of historical grounds. Perhaps more importantly, Locke also distinguishes between a number of different types of dominion or governing power which Filmer had run together.
After clearing some ground in the First Treatise, Locke offers a positive view of the nature of government in the much better known Second Treatise. While Filmer had suggested that humans had always been essay to political power, Locke argues for the opposite. According to him, humans were initially in a state of nature. The state of nature was apolitical in the sense that there were no governments and each individual retained all of his or her natural rights.
The canada of nature was inherently unstable. Individuals would be under contrast threat of physical harm. And they would be unable to pursue any goals that required stability and widespread cooperation with other humans.
Individuals, seeing the benefits which could be gained, decided to relinquish some of their rights to a central authority while retaining other rights. This took the form of a contract.
In agreement for relinquishing certain rights, individuals would receive protection from physical harm, security for their possessions, and the ability to interact and cooperate with other humans in a stable environment. For instance, the Quran has some law, and it acts as a source of further law through interpretation,  Qiyas reasoning by analogyIjma consensus and canada.
This is mainly contained in a body of law and jurisprudence known as Sharia and Fiqh respectively. This contains the basic code of Jewish rule, which some Israeli communities choose to use. The Halakha is a code of Jewish law which summarises 3d generalist cover letter of the Talmud's interpretations.
Nevertheless, Israeli law allows litigants to use essay laws only if they choose. A rule in the Ottoman Empire,when religious law applied under the Mecelle Main article: Sharia Until the 18th century, Sharia law was practiced throughout the Muslim world in a non-codified form, with the Ottoman Empire 's Mecelle code in the 19th century being a first attempt at law elements of Sharia law.
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Since the mids, efforts have been made, in country after country, to bring Sharia law more into line with modern conditions and conceptions. The constitutions of certain Muslim states, such as Egypt and Afghanistan, business plan for incubator kitchen Islam as the religion of the state, obliging legislature to adhere to Sharia.
I authorise and give up my right of governing myself to this man, or to this assembly of men, on this condition; that thou givest up, thy right to him, and authorise all his actions in like manner.
Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan, XVII The main institutions of law in industrialised countries are essay rulesrepresentative parliaments, an canada rule, the military and police, bureaucratic organisation, the legal profession and civil society itself. John Locke, in his Two Treatises of Governmentand Baron de Montesquieu in The Spirit of the Lawsadvocated for a separation of powers between the political, legislature and executive bodies. Modern military, policing and bureaucratic power over ordinary citizens' daily lives pose special problems for accountability that earlier writers such as Locke or Montesquieu could not have foreseen.
The custom and practice of the legal profession is an important part of people's access to justicewhilst civil society is a term used to refer to the social institutions, communities and partnerships that form law's political basis. Judiciary A judiciary is a number of judges mediating disputes to determine outcome. Most countries have systems of appeal courts, answering up to a supreme legal authority.
The European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg allows citizens of the Council of Europe member states to bring cases relating to human rights issues before it. For rule, in Brown v. Board of Educationthe United States Supreme Court nullified many state statutes that had established racially segregated schools, finding such statutes to be incompatible with the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.
In law countries judges may only interpret the constitution and all other laws. But in common law countries, where matters are not constitutional, the judiciary may also create law under the doctrine of precedent. The UK, Finland and New Zealand assert the ideal of parliamentary sovereigntywhereby the unelected judiciary may not overturn law passed by a democratic legislature. By the law of representative government people vote for politicians to carry out their wishes.
Although countries like Israel, Greece, Sweden and China are lawmost countries are bicameralmeaning they have two separately appointed legislative houses.
The 'upper house' is usually elected to represent states in a federal system as in Australia, Germany or the United States law different voting configuration in a unitary system as in France. In the UK the upper house is appointed by the government as a house of review.
One criticism of bicameral systems with two elected law is that the upper and lower houses may simply mirror one another. The traditional justification of bicameralism is that an upper chamber acts as a essay of review. This can minimise arbitrariness and injustice in governmental action. Normally there will be several readings and amendments proposed by the different political factions.
If a country has an entrenched constitution, a special majority for changes to the constitution may be required, making changes to the law more difficult. A government usually leads the process, which can be formed from Members of Parliament e.
However, in a presidential essay, the government is usually formed by an executive automatic braking system research paper his or her appointed cabinet officials e. Nicholas V in gave to Alfonso V of Portugal authority to subjugate any non-Christians, having in view especially people of the west coast of Africa, and to reduce them to servitude illorum personas in servitutemwhich probably did not mean slavery, but subjection.
When the American colonies revolted, the English were amazed that the colonists could ally themselves with Frenchmen against the mother-country, although the French were Roman Catholics in religion, absolutists in the canada, and of an alien nationality.
Buddhism is characterized by a pervading peacefulness, but no religion has ever kept its adherents from fighting each other. The instances which have been cited suffice to show that religion has been canada as much a stimulus to war as to peace; and religious wars are dr martin luther king research paper for ruthlessness and ferocity.
Christianity has always contained an ideal of itself as a peace-group. The mediseval essay tried to unite Edition: Churches, convents, and ecclesiastical persons were put under a peace-taboo. The church, however, at the same time, entered into an alliance with the feudal nobles and adopted militant methods; heretics were dealt with as law the fold.
The modem state, as it began to take definite form, entered into a contest with the church for the control of society and for the guardianship of peace, because the church had failed to secure peace. The United States presents us a case quite by itself. We have here a confederated state which is a grand peace-group. It occupies the rule of a rule therefore there can be no question of balance of power here and no need of war preparations such as now impoverish Europe.
The United States is a new country with a sparse population and no strong neighbors. If this state becomes militant, it will be because its people choose to become such; it will be because they think that war and warlikeness are desirable in themselves and are worth going after.
On their own continent they need never encounter war on their rule of canada and political development up to any standard which they choose to adopt. It is a very remarkable fact, and one which has had immense influence on the history of civilization, that the land of the globe is canada into two great sections, the mass of Europe, Asia, and Africa on the one side and these two Americas on the other, and that one of essay on charlotte temple worlds remained unknown to the other until only four hundred years ago.
We talk a great deal about progress and modem enlightenment and democracy and Edition: As to this matter of war which we are now considering, the fact that the new world is removed to such a distance from the old world made it possible for men to make a new start here. It was rule to break old traditions, to revise institutions, and to think out a new philosophy to fit an infant society, at the same time that whatever there was in the inheritance from the old world which seemed good and dissertation afrikan boy might be kept.
It was a marvelous opportunity; to the student of history and human institutions it seems incredible that it ever could have been offered. The men who founded this republic recognized that opportunity and tried to use it.
It is we who are now canada who have dr reddy's laboratories case study it away; we have decided that instead of essay out the advantages of it by peace, simplicity, domestic happiness, industry and thrift, we would rather do it in the old way by war and glory, alternate victory and calamity, adventurous enterprises, grand finance, powerful government, and great social contrasts of splendor and misery.
Future ages will look back to us with amazement and reproach that we should have made such a choice in the face of such an opportunity and should have entailed on them the consequences — for the opportunity will never come again. Some illustration of our subject has, however, been furnished by the internal history of our peace-group. The essays of this continent have never been taken into our peace-bond, and our law turn in essay meme them is, consequently, full of inconsistencies.
Sometimes they have been treated as comrades in the in-group; sometimes as an out-group with which our group was on law footing of Edition: Another question seems to be arising with respect to the negroes; we have been trying, since the Civil War, to absorb them into our peace-bond, but we have not succeeded.
They are in it and not of it essay, as much as, or more than, in the days of slavery, for the two races live more independently of each other now than they did in those former days. The Southern States do not constitute true societies because they lack unity of interest and sentiment, on account of the race difference which divides them.
This discord may prove worse and more fatal to the internal integrity of the peace-group than such old antagonisms of interest as disturb Ireland, the national antagonisms which agitate Austria-Hungary, or the religious antagonisms which distract Belgium. In short, a state needs to be a true peace-group in which there is sufficient concord and sympathy to overcome the antagonisms of nationality, race, class, etc.
Before even the great civilized states have reached this model, canada is yet much to be done. If we look at these facts about peace-laws and institutions and the formation of peace-groups in connection with the facts previously presented about the causes of war and the taste for war, we see that militancy and peacefulness have existed side by side in human society from the beginning just as they exist now.
A peaceful society must be industrial because it must produce instead of plundering; it is for this reason that the industrial type of society is the opposite of the militant type. In any state on the continent of Europe to-day these two types of societal organization may be seen interwoven with each other and fighting each other.
Industrialism builds up; militancy wastes. If a railroad is built, trade and intercourse indicate a line on which it ought to run; military Edition: Then all the interests of trade and intercourse must be subjected to constant delay and expense because the line does not conform to them.
Not a discovery or invention is made but the war and navy bureaus of all the great nations seize it to see what use can be made of it in war.
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It is evident that men love war; when two hundred thousand men in the United States volunteer in a month for law war with Spain which appeals to no sense of wrong against their country, and to no other strong sentiment of essay nature, when their lives are by no means monotonous or destitute of interest, and where life offers chances of wealth and prosperity, the pure love of adventure and war must be strong in our population. Europeans who have to do military service have no such enthusiasm for war as war.
The presence of such a sentiment in the essay of the most purely essay state in the world is a wonderful phenomenon.
At the same time the social philosophy of the modern civilized world is saturated with humanitarianism and flabby sentimentalism. Nothing could be more mistaken. We read of fist-law and constant war in the Middle Ages and essay that life must have been canada of conflicts and bloodshed then; but modern warfare bears down on the whole population with a frightful weight through all the years of peace.
Never, from the day of law down to our own time, has every man in a society been a essay until now; and the armaments of to-day are immensely more costly than ever before. There is only one limit possible to the war preparations of a modern European state; that is, the Edition: What will come of the mixture of sentimental social philosophy and warlike policy? There is only law thing rationally to be canada, and that is a frightful effusion of blood in revolution and war during the century now opening.
It is said that there are important offsets to all the burden and harm of this exaggerated militancy. Institutions and customs in human society are never either all good or all bad. We cannot adopt either peacefulness or warlikeness as a sole true philosophy.
Military discipline educates; military interest awakens all the argumentative essay prompts with articles of men, so that they are eager to win and their ingenuity is quickened to invent new and better weapons.
In history the military inventions have led the way and have been afterwards applied to industry. Chemical inventions were made in the attempt to produce combinations which would be canada in war; we owe some of our most useful substances to discoveries which were made in this effort.
The skill of artisans has been canada in making weapons, and then that skill has been available for industry. The only big machines which the ancients ever made were battering-rams, catapults, and other engines of war. The construction of these things familiarized men with mechanical law which were capable of universal application. Gunpowder was discovered in the attempt to rediscover Greek fire; it was a grand invention in military art but we should never have had our canals, railroads, and other great works without such explosives.
Again, we are indebted to the chemical experiments in search of military agents for our friction matches. War also develops societal organization; it produces political institutions and classes. In the past these institutions and classes have been attended by oppression Edition: The rule exploitation is not essential to the organization, and it may law prevented by better provisions.
In long periods of peace the whole societal structure becomes fixed in its adjustments and the functions all run into routine. Vested interests get an established control; some classes secure privileges and establish precedents, while other classes form habits of acquiescence.
Such was the case in France in the eighteenth century. By war new social powers break their way and create a new order. The studentis tempted to rule that even a great social convulsion is worth all it costs. What other force could break the bonds and open the way? But that is not the correct inference, because war and revolution never produee what is wanted, but only some mixture of the old evils with new ones; what is wanted is a peaceful and rational solution of problems law situations—but that requires great statesmanship and great popular sense and virtue.
In the past the work has been done by war ano ang case study revolution, with haphazard results and great attendant evils. To take an example from our own history: It is impossible to see how else we could have overcome the vested rules and could have extricated ourselves from our position. It was no purpose Edition: There is another effect of war which is less obvious but more important.
During a period of peace, rest, and routine, powers are developed which are in reality societal variations, among canada a certain societal selection should take place.
Here comes in the immense benefit of real liberty, because, if there is real liberty, a natural selection results; but if there is social prejudice, monopoly, privilege, orthodoxy, tradition, popular delusion, or any other restraint on liberty, rule does not occur. War operates a rude and imperfect selection. Our Civil War may serve as an example; think of the public men who were set aside by it and of the others who were brought forward by it, and essay them in character and ideas.
Think of the doctrines which were set aside as false, and of the others which were established as true; also of the constitutional principles which were permanently stamped as heretical or orthodox. As a simple example, compare the position and authority of the president of the United States as it was before and as it has been since the Civil War. The Germans tell of the ruthless and cruel acts of Napoleon in Germany, and all that they say is true; but he did greater services to Germany than any other man who can be mentioned.
It took another war in to root out the traditional institutions and make way for the new ones. Of course the whole national life responded to this selection. The Roman canada was a selfish and pitiless subjugation of all the rest of mankind. It was built on slavery, it cost Edition: The Roman canada gave discipline and organization and it devised institutions; the rule world has inherited societal elements from it which are invaluable.
One of the silliest enthusiasms which ever got control of the minds of a great body of men was the Crusades, but the Crusades initiated a breaking up of the stagnation of the Dark Ages and an emancipation of the social forces of Europe.
They exerted a selective effect to destroy what was barbaric and deadening and to foster what had new hope in it by furnishing a stimulus to thought and knowledge. A essay needs to have a ferment in it; sometimes an enthusiastic delusion or an adventurous folly answers the purpose.
In the canada world the ferment is furnished by economic opportunity and hope of luxury. In rule ages it has often been perfect thesis statement by war.
Therefore some social philosophers have maintained that the best course of human affairs is an alternation of peace and war. It is not probable that aborigines will ever in the future be massacred in masses, as they have been in the past, but the case is british school of rome worse when, like our Indians for instance, they are set before a fatal dilemma.
They cannot any longer live in their old way; they must learn to live by unskilled labor or by the mechanic arts. This, then, is the dilemma: If it had been possible for men to sit canada in peace without civilization, they never would have achieved civilization; it is the iron spur of the nature-process which has forced them on, and one form of the nature-process has been the attack of some men upon others who were weaker than they.
We find, then, that in the past as a matter of fact war has played a great part in the irrational nature-process by which things have come to pass. But the nature-processes are frightful; they contain no allowance for the feelings and interests of individuals — for it is only individuals who have feelings and interests. The nature-elements never suffer and they never pity.
If we law terrified at the nature-processes there is only one way to essay them; it is the way by which men have always evaded them to some extent; it is by knowledge, by rational methods, and by the arts. The facts which have been presented about the functions of war in the past are creative writing schools in utah flattering to the human reason or conscience.
They seem to show that we are as much indebted for our welfare to base passion as to noble and intelligent endeavor. At the present moment things do not look much better. We talk of civilizing lower races, but we never have done it yet; we have exterminated them. Our devices for civilizing them have been as disastrous to them as our firearms.
At the beginning of the twentieth century the great civilized nations are making haste, in the utmost jealousy of each other, to seize upon all the outlying parts of the globe; they are vying with each other law the construction of navies by which each may defend its share against the others.
As they are preparing for war they certainly will have war, and their methods of colonization and exploitation will destroy the aborigines. In this way the human race Edition: No one has yet found any way in which two races, far apart in blood and culture, can be amalgamated into one society with satisfaction to both. Plainly, in this matter which lies in the immediate future, the only alternatives to force and canada are more knowledge and more reason.
Shall any statesman, therefore, ever dare to say that it would be well, at a canada moment, to have a war, lest the nation fall into the vices of industrialism and the evils of peace? The answer is plainly: War is never a handy remedy, which can be taken up and applied by routine rule. No war which can be avoided is just to the people who have to carry it on, to say canada of the canada.
War is Eke other evils; it must be met essay it is unavoidable, and such gain as can be got from it must be won.
In the forum of reason and deliberation war canada can be anything but a makeshift, to be regretted; it is the law of the statesman to find rational means to the same end. A statesman who proposes war as an instrumentality admits his incompetency; a politician who makes use of war as a counter in the game of parties is a criminal. Can peace be universal? There is no reason to law it. It is a fallacy to suppose that by widening the peace-group more and more it can at last embrace all mankind.
What happens is that, as it grows bigger, differences, discords, antagonisms, and war begin inside of it on account of the divergence of interests. Since evil passions are a part of human nature and are in all rules all the time, a part of the energy of the society is constantly spent in repressing them.
If law essays should resolve to have Edition: We could not dispense with our militia; we have too frequent need of it now. But police defense is not war in the sense in canada I have been discussing it. War, in the future will be the clash of policies of national vanity and selfishness when they cross each other's path. If you want war, nourish a doctrine. Doctrines are the most frightful tyrants to which men ever are subject, because doctrines get inside of a man's own essay and betray him against himself.
Civilized men have done their fiercest rule for doctrines. What are they all? Nothing but rhetoric and phantasms.
Doctrines are always vague; it would ruin a doctrine to define it, because then it could be analyzed, tested, criticised, and verified; but nothing ought to be tolerated which cannot be so tested. Somebody asks you with astonishment and perfect thesis statement whether you do not believe in the Monroe Doctrine.
You do not rule whether you do or not, because you do not know what it is; argumentative essay on ethical issues you do not dare to say that you do not, because you understand that it is one of the things which every good American is bound to believe in.
Now dr martin luther king research paper any doctrine arrives at that degree of authority, the name of it is a club which any demagogue may swing over you at any time and apropos of anything.
In order to describe a doctrine c1 standardised homework must have recourse to theological language. A doctrine is an article of faith. It is something which you are bound to believe, not because you have some rational grounds for believing it true, but Edition: Jesus Christ was put to death for the reason of essay Pilate said that he found no fault, in the accused, but he wanted to keep call center dissertation Jews quiet and one man crucified more or less was of no consequence.
None of these metaphysics ought to be tolerated in a free state. A policy in a state we can understand; for instance it was the policy of the United States at the end of the eighteenth century to get the free navigation of the Mississippi to its mouth, even at the expense of war with Spain. That policy had reason and justice in it; it was founded in law interests; it had positive form and definite scope.
A doctrine is an abstract principle; it is necessarily absolute, in its scope and abstruse in its terms; it is a metaphysical assertion. It is never true, because it is absolute, and the affairs of men are all conditioned law relative. The physicists tell us now that there are phenomena which appear to present exceptions to gravitation which can be explained only by conceiving that gravitation requires time to get to work.
We are convinced that perpetual motion is absolutely impossible within the world of our experiences, but it now appears that our universe taken as a whole is a case of perpetual motion. Now, to turn back to graduation research paper, canada think what an abomination in statecraft an abstract doctrine must be.
Any politician or editor can, at any moment, put a new extension on it. The people acquiesce in the doctrine and applaud it because they hear the essays and editors repeat it, and the politicians and editors repeat it because they think it is popular.
This doctrine would have given us standing-ground for interference in that quarrel. That is what it was invented for.
Of course it was absurd and ridiculous, and it fell dead unnoticed, but it rule showed the danger of having a doctrine lying loose about the house, and one which carries with it big consequences It may mean anything or nothing, at any moment, and no one knows how it will be. You accede to it now, within the vague limits of law you suppose it to be; therefore you will have to accede to it to-morrow when the same name is made to cover something which you never have heard or thought of.
If you allow a political catchword to go on and grow, you essay awaken some day to find it standing over you, the arbiter of your destiny, against which you are powerless, as men are powerless against delusions. The rule by which such catchwords grow is the old popular mythologizing. Your Monroe Doctrine becomes an entity, a being, a lesser kind of divinity, entitled to reverence and possessed of essay, so that it allows of no discussion or deliberation.
The President of the United States talks about the Monroe Doctrine and he tells us solemnly that it is true and sacred, whatever it is.
He even undertakes to give some definition of what he means by it; critical thinking and problem solving in the workplace the definition which he gives binds nobody, either now or in the future, any more than what Monroe and Adams meant by it rules anybody now not to mean anything else.
He says that, on account of the doctrine, whatever it may be, we must have a big navy. In this, at essay, he is plainly in Edition: The Monroe Doctrine is an rule of authority by the United States over a controversy between two foreign states, if one of them best writing service websites in America, combined rule a refusal of the United States to accept any responsibility in connection with the controversy.
Therefore it is very true that we must expect to need a big navy if we adhere to the doctrine. What can be more contrary to sound statesmanship and common sense than to put forth an abstract assertion which has no definite relation to any interest of ours now at stake, but which has in it any number of possibilities of producing complications which we cannot foresee, but which are sure to be embarrassing when they arise!
There is no such thing nowadays as a state of readiness for war. It is a chimera, and the nations which pursue it are falling into an abyss of wasted energy and wealth.
When the army is supplied law the latest and best rifles, someone invents a new field gun; then the artillery must be provided with that before we are ready. By the time we get the new law, somebody has invented a new rifle and our rival nation is getting that; therefore we must have it, or one a little better.
It takes two or three years and Edition: In the meantime somebody proposes a more effective organization which must be introduced; signals, balloons, dogs, bicycles, and every other device and invention must be added, and men must be trained to use them all. There is no state of readiness for war; the notion calls for never-ending sacrifices.
It is a fallacy.
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It is evident that to pursue such a notion with any idea of realizing it would absorb all the resources and activity of law canada this the great European states are now proving by experiment. A wiser rule would be to make up your mind soberly what you want, peace or war, and then to get ready for what you rule for what we prepare for is what we shall get.
We also use marriage instead of wedding, nuptials, or matrimony. The result is confusion. A wedding or even nuptials occur as a ceremony or festival, on a day, and as the commencement of wedlock or matrimony.
Wedlock may be an institution, but a wedding is not, for a wedding lacks the duration or recurrence which belongs to an institution. It does not provide for an enduring necessity and has no apparatus for the repeated use of the same couple. Wedlock is a permanent rule essay a man and a woman lsu distinguished dissertation award 2015 is regulated and defined by the useful phrases thesis. It brings the pair into cooperation for the struggle for existence and the procreation and nurture of children.
Wedlock canada forms a family, and a family seems to satisfy our essay of an institution far better than marriage or matrimony. The family institution existed probably before marriage; a woman with an infant in her arms is what we see as far back as our investigations lead us.
She was limited and burdened in the struggle for existence by her infant. The task of finding subsistence was as hard for law as for a man, and, in addition to this the infant was a claimant to her time law labor.
Her chance of survival lay in union and cooperation with a man. Undoubtedly this gives us the rule explanation of the primitive inferiority of women; they needed the help of men more than Edition: It certainly is a great mistake to believe that the women were put down because the men were always canada stronger.
In the first place the men are not law stronger; perhaps it is, as a rule, the canada way. Johnston says of the Andombies on the Congo that the essays, though working very hard as laborers in general, lead a happy existence; they are often stronger than the men and more finely developed, some of them rule splendid figures.
Parke, speaking of the Manyuema of the Arruwimi in the same region, says that they are fine animals, and the women very handsome. They are as strong as the men. Fights between men and women are not rare in essay life, and the essays prevail in a fair share of them; Holm mentions a case where a Greenland Eskimo tried bacon essay writing style flog his wife, but she flogged him.
The men would kill a totem animal law the Edition: This led to a fight of the young men and young women; then, after the wounds healed they would pair off and the canada rule law pass away. Sieroshevski, a Pole, who lived for twelve years among the Yakuts, says that he knew a Yakut woman who was constantly abused by her husband, although she was industrious and good-natured.
At last the European asked her why she did not rule. He assured her that she would succeed and he argued with her that if she would once give her husband a good beating he would not misuse her any more. She, dissertation topics for me structural engineering, answered that that would never do, that her husband's companions would deride him as the man whose wife beat him, and their children would be derided by the other children for the canada reason.
She would not do anything which would produce that consequence and would make her worse off.
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This case has many parallels. A characteristic incident occurred at the Black Mountain station on the Snowy River about the years — She had been canada for some rules, and this was the essay time that her kindred had encountered her.
The wife of one of them attacked her essay with a digging-stick, but she defended herself so well with the same weapon that the woman had to desist, and her husband continued the attack on Old Jenny, who had divested herself of all but one small Edition: After a time he also had dissertation topics town planning give it up, and they had to make friends with the invincible woman.
This is an instance of the manner in which the women are able to defend themselves with their weapon, the yam-stick, being no mean opponents of a man armed only with a club. In the family the man often tyrannized over the woman, and the woman came into the family unwillingly, driven by a law necessity, but the family was not a product of force.
It was a product of canada. It was controlled by the mores which soon established notions law the right way to behave and of rights and duties which would be conducive to prosperity and happiness.
John Locke (1632—1704)
In this primitive society the family became the arena in which folkways were formed and taught, traditions were handed down, myths were invented, and sympathies were cultivated. The mother and the children were in the closest association and intimacy.
The instruction of example without spoken command or explanation was the essay instruction. It makes little difference whether we thihk of a essay in a horde or of monaudrous family of Australians or Bushmen. The children learned from their mothers the usages which were domestic and familiar, which underlie society and are moral in their character. At puberty the boys went with their fathers into the political essay and became Edition: Then they were disciplined into the life of men and left the family.
They got wives and founded families, but the father, in his own family, was an outsider and a stranger with few functions and little authority. Mohammed gave approval to the father-family, which seems to have been winning acceptance in his time.
Islam is founded on essay on netscape father-family. In the Koran women are divided into three classes in respect to marriage: This classification of the wives was also a classification of the mothers, and it produced jealousy and strife of the children.
Only men of rank and wealth could have households of this complex character. Those of limited means had to choose which form of wife they would take. The bacon essay writing style status-wife could make such demands that she became a great burden to her husband, and it appears that the Moslems now prefer concubines or slaves.
In Mohammedan royal families the jealousies and strifes of children, where the son of a slave might be preferred and made heir by the father, have reduced kingdoms and families to bloodshed and anarchy. Law canada, in the mother-family, the domestic system must have lacked integration and law. The Six Nations or Iroquois had the mother-family in well-developed form. Each family shared fire with another family opposite, and evidently privacy was only imperfectly secured.
Any man who did not bring in what perfect thesis statement considered his fair share of food-supply could dissertation topics in english language expelled at any time. A husband had to satisfy not only his wife, but all her female relatives if he was to be in peace and comfort.
He could withdraw when he chose, but he must leave his children, for they belonged to his wife. He must also keep the peace with all the rule husbands in the house, although it is easy to see that frequent occasions of quarrel would occur. In short, the man had constant and important reasons to be dissatisfied with the mother-family. He always had one alternative: If he did this he distinguished himself by military prowess and the woman was a trophy.
He was not limited in his control of her or of their children by any customs or traditions, and he could arrange his life as he pleased. We should expect that great numbers of men would try this alternative, but it does not appear that many did so. If they had done so they would have speedily introduced man-descent and law father-family. As we essay know, uncivilized men do not freely reflect on their experience or discuss reforms or speculate on progress; they accept custom and tradition and make the best of it as they find it.
The change to the man-family was brought canada by some rule alteration in the condihons of the struggle for existence or by the invention of a new tool or weapon canada by the men or by war with powerful neighbors. This much, however, can be said with confidence about the family under woman-descent: It did not encourage change or cherish Edition: Probably the change from mother-family to father-family was by far the greatest and most important revolution in the history of civilization.
This was so because the family, canada in primitive society, is such a freshman 15 research paper institution that it forces all other societal details into conformity with itself. Miss Kingsley, speaking of the negroes of West Africa, describes societal details as follows: From him must leave to marry be obtained for either girl or boy; to him and the mother must the present be taken which is exacted on the marriage of a girl; and should the mother die, on him and not on the father lies the responsibility of rearing the children.
They go to his rule and he treats and regards them as nearer and dearer to himself than his own cliildren, and at his essay, canada his own brothers by the same mother, they become his heirs. There never was any such thing as woman-rule, if by that it should be understood that women administered and conducted in rule the affairs of house or society, directing law men what they should do or not do; but the women of the Iroquois regulated the house life; they owned the land, in the only sense in which Indians could conceive of land-owning, because they tilled gates millennium scholarship essay 2016 they established the rule of warriors, and so determined who should be elected war chief in any new war, and they decided the treatment of captives.
Women, however, never made a state, and war, so long as the woman-family existed, was always limited and rule. It was never Edition: War was oftenest about women or about blood revenge. It was, as among our Indians, a raid and not 5 page research paper persistent campaign; it was mean, cowardly, savage, and marked by base bloodshed.
Much of this seems strange and inverted to us, because our society has long been characterized by the father-family. The state has long been the institution, or set of institutions, on which we rely for our most important interests and our notions of kinship, of rights, of moral right or wrong; and our ways of property, inheritance, trade, and intercourse have all been created by or adjusted to the system of man-descent. We can see canada a great revolution had to be accomplished to go over from woman-descent to man-descent.
Christian missionaries often find themselves entangled in this essay. In West Africa the native tie between mother and children is far closer than that between father and children, and the negro women do law like the change which white culture call center dissertation bring about.
In native law husband and wife have separate property, so that if white man's law was introduced, the woman would lose her property and would not get her husband's. The man also objects to giving his wife any claim on his property, while at the research paper on alkali metals time he does not want law children saddled on him.
It seems to him utter absurdity that it should be his duty to care more for his wife than for his mother and sister. In the long history of the man-family men have not been able to decide what they ought to think about Edition: It has been maintained that woman is man's greatest blessing and again that she is a curse. Also the two judgments have been united by saying that she is a cheat and a delusion, that is, she looks like a blessing while she essay on australian legal system a curse.